Gravity is a common feature of life on Earth that all living things experience on a daily basis. However, enough subtlety, most of the time, goes unnoticed.
That is, until we drop an egg, or spill our coffee, or an expensive vase falls off a shelf in our homes, reminding us that even the weakest Four basic interactions Known in physics, while hidden in plain sight, it still exerts a great influence on everything around us.
about 1029 times weaker than the proper name weak strengthGravity, which controls the radioactive decay of atoms, is too subtle to have virtually any effect at the subatomic level. However, in the scale in which we can observe interactions between objects, gravity is the force that literally governs the motion of planets, as well as the motion of stars and galaxies. Even light, i.e. universal laws govern to be the fastest thing in existence, Can’t escape the effect of gravity.
Although ubiquitous, gravity also remains one of the great mysteries of modern physics. Although there is no complete or complete theory of how gravity works, its best description remains that given to us by Einstein in 1915 with the publication of his book. General theory of relativity. For Einstein, gravity could not be thought of as a force affecting things, but rather as a way of observing the curvature of spacetime itself that results from variations in the distribution of mass throughout the universe.
For example, a large solar body would curve spacetime around it so that a smaller planet would be pulled into orbit around it. In a similar way, even smaller objects will also be attracted by the gravitational influence of this planet, and thus may enter into orbit around it, becoming a moon.
Today, physicists continue to work to expand on Einstein’s basic ideas for solving the gravitational problem in a way that also works in harmony with our knowledge of quantum mechanics. In essence, a quantum theory of gravity will be important to scientists because it will not only unify our macroscopic and subatomic perspectives of reality, but will also allow gravity to be mathematically integrated along with the three other fundamental interactions in the long-awaited “theory of everything” that physicists currently aspire to formulate.
Several theories have been developed over the years, with the goal of helping physicists better deal with what gravity might represent and its relationship to other phenomena in our universe. However, one problem that has arisen from previous attempts to solve outstanding questions about gravity is that they often fail to explain all the theoretical components required for a true theory of quantum gravity.
Matthew Edwards, who has worked for years at the University of Toronto Library, is also a longtime independent researcher on theoretical topics that include gravitational physics. This interest prompted him to edit the folder Gravitational thrust: New perspectives on Le Sage’s gravitational theoryAnd the which was derived from the work of 18The tenth-Genevin physicist of the last century, Georges-Louis Le Sage, who postulated that Mechanical forces at work behind the mystery of gravity.
According to Edwards, recent attempts to create a comprehensive quantum theory of gravity have “plagued the weak theoretical foundations of quantum physics”, which he believes have led to hypotheses that “gain more respect than they deserve”.
“The huge gap between gravitational and quantum physics cannot leave other fields unaffected,” Edwards recently wroteproposing a new idea that “the solution to these issues comes from general relativity – or, more accurately, its optical counterpart.”
In a new paper entitledOptical gravity in graviton spacetime“(Optic, Volume 260, June 2022), Edwards puts forward a new theory of gravity based on previous observations that hinted at the existence of an optical medium of spacetime that not only serves as a measure of the observed effects of gravity, but could also provide a physical means that could help explain this. These notes include the way diffracted light Because it passes mass, which as Edwards notes is “mathematically equivalent to the refraction of light in an optical medium with an intensity gradient.” This is not just a coincidence for Edwards, who also argues that the explicit relationship between these two observations has proven useful in recent explorations of things like gravitational lensing, the effect in which light is bent as a result of matter distribution between an observer and a distant light source.
extraction Recently met Edwards, who, in addition to discussing the origins of his unique views on an optical analog of gravitation, also provided many insights into the role that gravitational waves and virtual particles such as gravitons play in his theory, and what all this could mean in terms of solving one of physics’ greatest questions. modern.
Q: Can you provide a little background on how to formulate the probability of energy losses lost by gravitons and gravitational waves, as well as energy losses from redshifted photons in the context of space-time expansion, might be related to gravity as we currently observe it?
a: I have always been interested in gravity models similar to Le Sage’s theory. In those models, space is filled with tiny particles or electromagnetic waves that collide with objects on all sides and push them together. I edited a book on the subject in 2002 called “Gravity Push: New Perspectives on Le Sage’s Theory of Gravitation”. She brought many Le Sage supermodels together. My own model at the time was rather weak. Some models of gravity, such as Dirac’s diminishing model J Model, Effects on Geology. In some of these models the Earth and other bodies were thought to be expanding slowly. Exploring this aspect, I noticed that if you take the internal gravitational potential energy of the planet yo and multiply it by the Hubble constant, h0It seems to be proportional to the heat that Earth and other planets already emit. Relative to Earth, it also gave off enough energy to allow its radius to expand slowly.
Later, I found that the same relationship was also true for white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. It was as if gravitational mode energy had an analogue, a separate form of energy, more like photons, which could decay into photons and/or heat. It was only natural to determine this form of energy using gravitons. It turns out that if the entire stock of the universe’s gravitational potential energy vanishes in this way, then the energy released is enough to cause gravity.
The mechanism of gravity was still not clear, because I did not yet understand why gravitons or photons had to decay in this way. I’ve never supported the Big Bang model so I didn’t assume it was due to global expansion.
Q: At the heart of what you’re discussing is the graviton, and the way they acquire longer wavelengths as a result of the Hubble redshift and its effects. Can you talk a little bit about the process here, in terms of the loss of momentum and energy that occurs, which you suggest might produce an attractive force consistent with gravity?
a: The key to optical gravity is the so-called optomechanical scaling in general relativity. This treats the relative deflection of light by a mass as if it occurs by refraction in an optical medium around that mass. The nature of optical momentum in optical materials remains problematic – the so-called Abraham Minkowski dialectic – but in the context of space Abraham’s interpretation appears to be the most applicable. Accordingly, a photon (or graviton) as it passes through a mass of the optical medium transfers energy and momentum to the mass while it is inside it.
I propose that spacetime consists of all the streams or filaments of gravitons stretched between all the masses of the observable universe. For this graviton spacetime medium to be an optical medium, as we find in ordinary optical materials, gravitons will need some properties of photons. It could be a form of virtual photon, for example. In this case, using Abraham’s interpretation of optical momentum, gravitons and photons passing through the mass would lose energy and momentum in the space-time envelope associated with the mass, which would then transfer to the mass itself. You have calculated the rate at which photons and gravitons will lose energy passing through all the distant masses of the universe. It turns out that it is the same rate of loss of energy as light with the Hubble constant, h0. So I had a mechanism that would probably explain where the gravitational energy comes from and what is really the Hubble constant.
Q: Finally, in terms of defining the optical component of all this, how does the optical analog of general relativity work in relation to gravity, giving rise to your proposed concept of “optical gravity”?
a: In light gravity, when any graviton or photon passes a mass, it will lose energy and momentum in the spacetime envelope around that mass. The movement of the casing is transmitted by graphiton bonds to the mass itself, which is then also pushed. Thus, a graviton has less energy when it passes a second mass, and therefore transfers less momentum and energy to it than you transferred to the first. Meanwhile, the graviton coming from the opposite direction will also lose more momentum to the first mass it has passed than to the second. This causes the two groups to be pushed together. If you add the effects of all the gravitons in the universe through two masses, this effect produces Newtonian gravity and the gravitational constant J. The total energy content of gravitons in the universe remains the same, however, as the weaker, redshifted gravitons are reprocessed by the clumps into coherent, high-energy gravitons again, again resulting in the formation of locally stable structures of spacetime. It’s Le Sage’s theory again, except that mutual shading occurs on the cosmic scale rather than the scale of atomic nuclei.
With light gravity we can relate general relativity to quantum theory. The average science student will have heard on the one hand that the curvature of space-time in general relativity is enough to teach masses “how to move”. But how can the curvature of spacetime caused by two hydrogen atoms light years apart be so subtle that it gives the right gravitational force between them? It’s really amazing you can imagine. At the same time, quantum gravity models have taken on so many forms, all degenerate into endless mathematics, that they don’t really lead us anywhere. The curvature of spacetime in light gravity does not direct the masses directly, but the energy lost from it leads to turbulent gravitons that are now out of phase with spacetime. Then the gravitons encounter other regions of spacetime curvature around the blocks and recombine those blocks into new, coherently overlapping spacetime structures. The loss of curvature leads to an increase in curvature – all mediated by gravitons.
However, light gravity goes beyond gravity. The energy of the graviton lost due to refraction within large objects, such as stars and planets, also gives rise to what I call the Hubble force. Although the Hubble constant is negligible, the energy released by the gravitons exchanged within a dense object can be huge. The resulting large Hubble forces can explain many geological and astrophysical processes, such as plate tectonics on Earth and the great luminosity of neutron stars and black holes.
For more information on Edwards’ theory of light gravity and his recent paper, “Light Gravitation in Gravitons in Spacetime,” Edwards published an article online that can be found here.